Kratka povijest Hrvatske pravoslavne crkve

arhiepiskop aleksandar, 660x330

Arhiepiskop Aleksandar: Kratka povijest Hrvatske pravoslavne crkve

POČETAK crkve u Dalmaciji je 55 g. kad je Tit, učenik apostola Pavla, osnovao crkvu. Poslije Milanskog edikta posvuda u rimskom carstvu nastupa mirno doba pa se kršćanska crkva slobodno širi. Na početku je ta crkva pod vrhovnom jurisdikcijom rimskoga patriarha, a nakon 732 g. dalmatinska crkva prelazi pod jurisdikciju carigradskog patriarha.

Hrvati stižu u Istočno rimsko carstvo u doba cara Heraklija da bi sudjelovali u ratu protiv avara i nešto kasnije stvaraju vlastitu državu. Pokrštavanje Hrvata bio je dugotrajan i kompleksan proces u kojem su sudjelovali različiti činitelji i završava u drugoj polovici 9 st. kada Neretvane pokrštavaju bizantski misionari.

Godine 1075. Splitski sabor donosi odluku da hrvatske zemlje prelaze pod jurisdikciju rimske crkve a nešto pravoslavaca ostaje u dalmatinskim gradovima koje su bizantske kolonije. Mletačka republika preuzima ove gradove u 1420. i dalmatinski pravoslavci prelaze pod jurisdikciju Filadelfijskog mitropolita (Carigradska patrijaršija) u Mletcima (Veneciji), gdje i ostaju do kraju 18. st. U svim državnim dokumenatima (dukali), namenjenim pravoslavcima u Dalmaciji, piše da su to pravoslavni Grci.

Quod initio vitiosum est, non potest tractu temporis convalescere.

(Što je u od početka nevaljano, ne može se tijekom vremena postati valjano.)

1219 g. bez dozvole nadređenog Ohridskog arhiepiskopa (Arhiepiskop Prve Justinijane i cjele Bugarske – Αρχιεπίσκοπος της πρωτης ‘Ιουστινιανης και πάσης Βουλγαριας), Rastko-Sava proglašava autokefalnost Raške episkopije u pokušaju da proširi kršćanstvo u Raški.

Zadnja država u Europi koja prima kršćanstvo je Litva 1251. godine.

leopold, pavoslavna crkva
Ukaz kralja Leopolda І za osnivanje grčko-iztočne (pravoslavne) crkve za narod koji je stigao iz Ilirika

U toku austrijskih (Sveta unija) ratova protiv Turske, kada austrijska vojska preuzimajući Beograd i Niš dostiže do Plovdiva, kršćansko stanovništvo podiže više ustanaka te se pridružuje austrijskoj vojsci. Nažalost, grof Pokolomini, vođa austrijske vojske umire od kuge i tad Turcima uspijeva preokrenuti tijek rata.

Strahujući od turske odmazde mjesni kršćani – bugari, grci, albanci i srbi, bježe na lijevu obalu Dunava, na austrijski teritorij. Zbog toga što su oni većinom pravoslavci, kralj Leopold І donosi odluku za osnivanje grčko-iztočne (pravoslavne) crkve za narod, koji je stigao iz Ilirika. Poglavar ove crkve postaje dotadašnji Ipekski (Pećki) arhiepiskop Arsenij ІІІ Černoević.

U Beču je 3. ožujka 1707. održana zajednička konferencija predstavnika Dvorskog ratnog savjeta i Dvorske ugarske komore. Konferencija je donijela odluku da se prilikom izbora novog poglavara austrougarskih pravoslavaca ima nastojati da se on proglasi potpuno nezavisnim od svih patrijarha pod Turcima i da može nositi titulu arhiepiskop jer je to bio i u Ipekskoj arhiepiskopiji. Nešto kasnije su za sjedište arhiepiskopa austrougarskih pravoslavaca određeni Srijemski Karlovci i osim grčko-iztočna, ova crkva je nazivana i Karlovačka arhiepiskopija jer u ono doba pravoslavne crkve su naziv po gradu u kojem stoluje crkveni poglavar.

U Austro-Ugarskoj su postojale tri pravoslavne crkve i sve tri imali su naziv GRČKO-IZTOČNA.

Druga GRČKO-IZTOČNA crkva stvorena je 1775., pod nazivom: Bukovinsko-dalmatinska mitropolija, kad je Austrija preuzela Bukovinu, a bila je namijenjena vlasima u Bukovini i Dalmaciji.

Treća GRČKO-IZTOČNA crkva je u Černivci (Galicija).

U stara vremena korišteni su nazivi crkvi po glavnom gradu gdje je sjedište crkvenog poglavara – Preslavska patrijaršija, Trnovska patrijaršija, Kijevska mitropolija…

Da su se ranije koristili nacionalni nazivi, sve GRČKO-ISTOČNE crkve u Austro-Ugarskoj bile bi nazvane Austro-Ugarske PC, odnosno ona sa sjedištem i teritorijem u Trojednoj kraljevini, nosila bi naziv: HRVATSKA pravoslavna crkva.

U Austro-Ugarskoj monarhiji doneseno je još zakona i odluka o pravoslavnim crkvama:  1868. Mađarski zakon o grčko-iztočnoj crkvi i 1884. i 1887. Odluke Hrvatskog sabora o grčko-iztočnoj crkvi.

Na početku 18 st. na Balkanu osim Carigradske partijaršije postojale su kao samostalne crkve bugarska Ohridska arhiepiskopija (Arhiepiskopija Prve Justinijane i cjele Bugarske – Αρχιεπίσκοπος της πρωτης ‘Ιουστινιανης και πάσης Βουλγαριας – Archiepiscopus prime Iustinianae, Achridum et totius Bulgariaea “(do 1767.) i Ipekska (pećka) arhiepiskopija (obnovljena 1557. – postojala do 1766.), ali po nazivu države u kojoj se nalaze ove crkve, svaka od njih morala bi nositi naziv Turska pravoslavna crkva.

Godine 1879. autokefalnost dobiva Beogradska arhiepiskopija.

HPC postoji do 17. lipnja 1920., kad je ukazom prijestolonasljednika Aleksandra donijeta odluka o stvaranju Autokefalne ujedinjene srpske pravoslavne crkve u Kraljevstvu Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca.

http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=14nk041&s=8#.VltfbS5bfzw

http://www.cpc.org.me/latinica/istorija_crkva.php?id=3

19. veljače 1922., Carigradski patrijarh Meletij ІV. podpisuje Tomos na temelju odluke Svetog sinoda (protokol 1148), za stvaranje nove crkve i daje obrazloženje za to – međudržavni ugovori za stvaranje nove države, Kraljevstva Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca.

Da bi bio podpisan ovaj Tomos, Srbska vlada uplaćuje na tri obroka 1 500 000 franaka Carigradskoj patriaršiji. To je po crkvenim pravilima, veliki prekršaj nazvan simonija (apost. pravilo br. 29 i dr.).

Godine 1929., država mijenja naziv u Kraljevina Jugoslavija, ali Autokefalna ujedinjena srpska pravoslavna crkva u Kraljevstva Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca ne mijenja naziv u Jugoslavenska pravoslavna crkva.

Kraljevina Jugoslavija nestaje par dana nakon njemačkog napada u travnju 1941., a 10. travnja 1941., stvorena je Nezavisna država Hrvatska, koja je po različitim izvorima bila priznata od između 21 do 86 država.

U travnju 1942. donesena je odluka o obnovi Hrvatske pravoslavne crkve. Priznata je od Carigradske patrijaršije, Rumunjske pravoslavne crkve i Bugarske pravoslavne crkve.

Nakon završetka Drugog svjetskog rata u noći s 29. na 30. svibnja 1945., ubijeni su Patriarh Germogen, svo svećenstvo HPC i mnoštvo pravoslavnih vjernika.

Autokefalna ujedinjena srpska pravoslavna crkva u Kraljevstvu Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca tada konstatira da je rad HPC prestao i da se dalje nastavlja rad SPC. Ona donosi odluku o ukidanju HPC – crkve koju nije stvorila, niti koja bi potekla od nje.

Već 1. kolovoza 1947., u FNRJ objavljen je Ustav Srpske pravoslavne crkve – prvi puta u povijesti postoji crkva pod ovim imenom, ali opet nije povezano sa nazivom države. Ne povezuje se niti 1974. kad država mijenja naziv na SFRJ.

Godine 1990. stvorena je Republika Hrvatska. Priznata je od svih država u svijetu, članica Ujedinjenih naroda i svih međunarodnih organizacija.

Na popisu stanovništva u RH iz 2011., 16 647 Hrvata prvi put u povijesti, potpuno slobodno izjasnilo se pravoslavcima, i to u doba kad HPC još ne djeluje. Takvo mnoštvo vjernika imaju sveukupno sve vjerske zajednice upisane u Evidenciji vjerskih zajednica (bez islamske). Na prijašnjim popisima vezu između hrvatske etničke pripadnosti i pravoslavne vjere nije bilo moguće statistički evidentirati – vjerojatno su statističke metode namjerno bile tako postavljene, kako se pravoslavlje ne bi moglo izravno povezati s hrvatstvom.

Europska pravoslavna crkva sa sjedištem u Parizu (Eglise orthodoxe d,Europe) je 2. listopada 2013. osnovala podružnicu u Hrvatskoj i nazvala ju Hrvatska pravoslavna crkva, jer je osnovana radi HRVATA pravoslavaca. Usvojen je i stupio na je na snagu statut (ustav) Hrvatske pravoslavne crkve, koji vrijedi jedino i samo na teritoriju RH. Aleksandar (Ivanov) rukopoložen je HRVATSKIM episkopom. Europska pravoslavna crkva u Hrvatskoj – Hrvatska pravoslavna crkva, upisana je u registar transparentnosti Europske unije.

Patriarh Nikolas І, znajući da je Republika Hrvatska na temelju svog Ustava nezavisna i da ispunjava uvjete za pridruživanje Europskoj uniji – skupini demokratskih država, koje poštuju ljudska prava, odlučio je 1. prosinca 2013. podpisati Tomos za dodjeljivanje autokefalnosti obnovljenoj Hrvatskoj pravoslavnoj crkve, kako bi se time ispunili uvjeti Apostolskog pravila br. 34.: “Еpiskopi svakoga naroda trebaju priznati prvoga među sobom i njega smatrati glavom”.

Na ovaj način hrvatski narod dobio je obnovljenu Hrvatsku pravoslavnu crkvu, koja je oduvijek postojala i bila dio kršćanstva u Hrvata.

Hrvatski arhiepiskop +Aleksandar

Tekst je izvorno objavljen na: http://www.maxportal.hr/arhiepiskop-aleksandar-kratka-povijest-hrvatske-pravoslavne-crkve/

 

Prijevod na engleski jezik:

 

HISTORY OF THE CROATIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH

 

The church originates from Dalmatia where Titus, a disciple of the Apostle Paul, founded the church in 55 AD. After the Edict of Milan, there was peacetime everywhere in the Roman Empire and the Christian church spread freely. At the beginning, the church was under the supreme jurisdiction of the Roman Patriarchs, and after 732, the Dalmatian church fell under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch.

The Croats arrived in the Eastern Roman Empire during the reign of Heraclius to take part in the war against the Avars. Later, they created their own state. Christianization of the Croats was a lengthy and complex process involving different factors and it ended in the second half of the 9th century when Byzantine missionaries converted the Narentines.

In 1075, the Church Council of Split decided that the Croatian lands fall under the jurisdiction of the Roman Church, and some Orthodox Christians remained in the Dalmatian cities, which were Byzantine colonies. Venetians took over these cities in 1420 and the Dalmatian Orthodox Christians fell under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitanate of Philadelphia (Patriarchate of Constantinople) in Venice, where they remained until the end of the 18th century. In all government documents (ducals), aimed at Orthodox Christians in Dalmatia, it states that they are Orthodox Greeks.

Quod initio vitiosum est, non potest tractu temporis convalescere.

(What was invalid from the beginning, cannot become valid over time.)

In 1219, without the permission of the superior of the Ohrid archbishop (the Archbishop of Justiniana Prima and the whole of Bulgaria – Αρχιεπίσκοπος της πρωτης ‘Ιουστινιανης και πάσης Βουλγαριας), Rastko-Sava declared the autocephaly of the Raška diocese in an attempt to expand Christianity in Raška.

The last European country to receive Christianity was Lithuania in 1251.

During the Austrian (Holy League) wars against Turkey, when the Austrian army took over Belgrade and Niš and reached to Plovdiv, the Christian population raised more and more uprisings and joined the Austrian army. Unfortunately, Count Piccolomini, the leader of the Austrian army, died of the plague, and the Turks managed to turn the course of the war. Fearing Turkish reprisals, the local Christians – Bulgarians, Greeks, Albanians, and Serbs, fled to the left bank of the Danube in the Austrian territory. Because they were mostly Orthodox Christians, the King, Leopold I, decided to establish the Greco-Eastern (Orthodox) church for the people that arrived from Illyria. The head of this church was the former Archbishop of Peć, Arsenije III Černoević.

On 3 March 1707 in Vienna, there was a joint conference of representatives of the Court War Council and the Royal Hungarian Chamber of Commerce. The Conference adopted the decision that during the election of the new head of the Austro-Hungarian Orthodox Christians endeavours must be made to declare him completely independent of all the Patriarchs under the Turks, and that he can bear the title of Archbishop, because he was also Archbishop in the Archdiocese of Peć. Later, the seat of the Austro-Hungarian Orthodox Archbishop was in Sremski Karlovci. In addition to Greco-Eastern, this church was also known as the Archdiocese of Karlovac, because at that time Orthodox churches received their names according to the city from which the church leader ruled.

In Austria-Hungary, there were three Orthodox churches and all three were called Greco-Eastern.

The second Greco-Eastern Church was created in 1775 when Austria took Bukovina, under the name of the Metropolitanate of Bukovina and Dalmatia, and was intended for the Vlachs in Bukovina and Dalmatia.

The third Greco-Eastern Church was in Chernivtsi (Galicia).

In the old days they used the names of the church after the capital where the seat of religious head was – the Patriarchate of Preslava, the Patriarchate of Trnovo, the Metropolitanate of Kiev, and so forth. If they had previously used national titles, all the Greek-Eastern churches in Austria-Hungary would be called the Austro-Hungarian Orthodox Church, i.e. the one that was based and had territory in the Triune Kingdom would be called the Croatian Orthodox Church.

In Austria-Hungary more laws and decisions of the Orthodox churches were issued: 1868 – the Hungarian law on the Greco-Eastern Church and in 1884 and 1887 – Rulings of the Croatian Parliament on the Greco-Eastern Church.

At the beginning of the 18th century in the Balkans, apart from the Patriarchy of Constantinople, there existed independent churches: the Bulgarian Archdiocese of Ohrid (Archdiocese of Justiniana Prima and the whole of Bulgaria – Αρχιεπίσκοπος της πρωτης ‘Ιουστινιανης και πάσης Βουλγαριας – Archiepiscopus prime Iustinianae, Achridum et totius Bulgariaea (until 1767) and the Archdiocese of Peć rebuilt in 1557 – existed until 1766), however, according to the name of the state where these churches were, each of them should have been called the Turkish Orthodox Church.

In 1879 the Belgrade Archdiocese is granted autocephaly.

The Croatian Orthodox Church existed until 17 June 1920, when by the decree of the Crown Prince Alexander, it was decided to create a united autocephalous Serbian Orthodox Church in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=14nk041&s=8#.VltfbS5bfzw

http://www.cpc.org.me/latinica/istorija_crkva.php?id=3

On February 19 1922, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Meletius IV signed a Tomos based on the decision of the Holy Synod (protocol 1148) to create a new church and a justification for it – intergovernmental agreements for the creation of the new state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

In order for this Tomos to be signed, the Serbian government paid 1 500 000 francs to the Patriarchy of Constantinople in three instalments. According to canon law, this was a great offense called simony (Apostolic rule no. 29, etc.).

In 1929, the state changed its name to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, but the Autocephalous United Serbian Orthodox Church in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes did not change its name to Yugoslav Orthodox Church.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia ceases to exist a few days after the German invasion in April 1941, and on April 10, 1941, the Independent State of Croatia was created, which, according to some sources, was recognized by 86 states.

In April 1942, a decision was made on the renewal of the Croatian Orthodox Church. It was recognized by the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the Romanian Orthodox Church and the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.

After the end of World War II, on the night between 29 to 30 May 1945, the Croatian Patriarch Germogen, all clergy of the Croatian Orthodox Church and many Orthodox believers were executed.

The United Autocephalous Serbian Orthodox Church in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes then stated that the work of the Croatian Orthodox Church stopped and that the work of the Serbian Orthodox Church continues. It rules to cancel the Croatian Orthodox Church – the Church that was neither created by it, nor originated from it.

On August 1 1947 in Yugoslavia, the Constitution of the Serbian Orthodox Church was published – for the first time in the history a church under this name is mentioned, and that name is, again, not the name of the state. There was no change in the name in 1974 either, when the state changed its name to Yugoslavia.

In 1990, the Republic of Croatia was created. It was recognized by all countries in the world, members of the United Nations and all international organizations.

At Republic of Croatia 2011 census, 16 647 Croats, for the first time in history, completely freely declared themselves Orthodox, and this was at a time when the Croatian Orthodox Church was not yet operational. Such a large number of believers is near the total of all religious communities entered in the Register of religious communities (apart from Islamic). At the previous censuses, the link between Croatian ethnicity and the Orthodox faith was not possible to record statistically – the statistical methods were likely deliberately set so that Orthodoxy could not be directly linked to Croatian identity.

The European Orthodox Church based in Paris (Eglise orthodoxe d’Europe) established a branch in Croatia on 2 October 2013 and called it the Croatian Orthodox Church, since it was established to serve Croat Orthodox Christians. The Statute (constitution) of the Croatian Orthodox Church was adopted and came into force. It is valid only on the territory of the Republic of Croatia. Alexander (Ivanov) was ordained as Bishop of Croatia. The European Orthodox Church in Croatia – Croatian Orthodox Church was entered in the European Union’s Register of Transparency.

Patriarch Nicolas I, knowing that the Republic of Croatia, on the basis of its Constitution, was independent, and that it meets the conditions for joining the European Union – a group of democratic nations that respect human rights, decided on 1 December 2013 to sign the Tomos for granting autocephaly to the restored Croatian Orthodox Church, to thus meet the requirements of the Apostolic Canon no.34 .: “The bishops of each national group should recognize the one who has first place among them, and consider him as head.”

In this way, the Croatian people have received a renewed Croatian Orthodox Church, which has always existed and was part of Christianity in Croatia.

Croatian Archbishop Alexander †

Oglasi

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